Minggu, 11 Desember 2011

Rabu, 19 Oktober 2011

Weeds Description

Weeds are plants whose presence is not desirable in agricultural land due to lower results can be achieved by crop production.
Technical limitation and plastic weed. Technically, since hooked up with a production process of agricultural crops. The presence of weeds down results by interrupting the production of plant growth through competition. Plastic, since this restriction does not bind to a species of plant. On some level, useful plants can be weeds. Conversely, plants that are usually considered weeds can also be considered non-intrusive. Example, soybeans are grown on the sidelines of monoculture cropping corn can be considered a weed, but in intercropping systems are both the main crop. Nevertheless, some plant species are known as major weeds, such as puzzles (Cyperus rotundus) and reeds.
The study of weeds, behavior, and is known as the science of weed control.
Based on morphology, weeds are divided into 3 groups, namely weed grasses, weeds tekian, and broad leaf weeds.
Group tekian weeds (sedges) has exceptional durability against mechanical control because it has a stem tuber in the soil that can last for months. In addition, the weed is run C4 photosynthesis pathway that makes it very efficient in quickly mastered the agricultural area. Characteristics are rod-shaped cross section triangular, rounded, and not hollow, having successive leaves along the stem in three rows, do not have the tongue leaves and growing point is hidden. This group includes all members of the Cyperaceae (puzzle-tekian tribe) who become a weed. Examples: puzzles fields (Cyperus rotundus), udelan (Cyperus kyllinga), and Scirpus moritimus.
Group of mostly herbaceous weeds from gramineae family (Poaceae). The size of this group varies weeds, there is an upright, spreading, live seasonal, or annual basis. The crackers are called culms, are divided into sections with books contained between sections. Stems grow alternately on the two books at each of the leaf segment consists of two parts, namely the leaf midrib and leaf blade. Examples of grass weeds, including: Panicium repens, Eleusine indica, Axonopus compressus and others.
Class of broad leaf weeds (leaf board) is derived from a variety of weeds, such as Dicotyledoneae included in this group. Weeds usually grow at the end of cultivation.Competition against the major crops in the form of light competition. Meristems formed in leaf buds and is very sensitive to kemikalia. There are stomata on the leaves, especially on the lower surface, more prevalent. There are buds on nodusa, as well as the growing point is located in the branch. Examples of this weed ceplukan (Physalis angulata L.), wedusan (Ageratum conyzoides L.), Sembung hair (Mikania michranta), and daughter of shame (Mimosa pudica).
Based on the life cycle, weeds can be divided into three, namely weed annuals, bi season weeds, and perennial weeds.
Weeds Season (Annual Weeds) only less than one year old. Generally reproduce by seeds, rapid growth, with very high reproducibility. After the beans cook, usually weeds will die. Seeds produced in the first year will generally experience dormancy, and grow back the following year. There is a broad leaf weeds season, puzzles annuals, annuals and grass weeds in fact this is an economically important weeds in rice plants. Existence because bestow seed production. Examples of these types of weeds, some of them: Spinach spines (Amaranthus spinosus L.), Rat Tail (Heliotripium indicum L.), Urang aring (Eclipta prostrate L.), Babadotan (Ageratum conyzoides L.), Puzzles (Cyperus compressus L.) , Jekeng or Teki Rendul (Iria Cyperus L.), Jampang Piit (Digitaria adscendens (HBK) Hern.), Jajagoan leutik (Echinochloa colonum (L) Link.), And Grass empirit (Era-grotis OK amabilis), red rice (Oryza sativa).
Biennial Weeds aged between 1-2 years. First, the weeds are growing vegetatively in rosette form, then the following year formed the generative organs by producing flower, produce seed and die. Bilingual weeds season are often found in areas that have 4 seasons. Examples of these types of weeds: Spoon leaves (Plantago sp.), Sunduk welut (Cyperus difformis L.), Daughter of Shame (Mimosa pudica L.), wild carrot (Daucus carata), Dandelion (Taraxacum spp.), Bull thistle (Cirsium vulgare), Common mullein (Verbascum Thapsus), Burdock (Arctium sp.), Black-berry (Rubus sp.)
Annual weeds (perennial Weeds) aged more than 2 years. 
Generally proliferate vegetatively, but there are some species that breed in vegetative and generative. The organs of vegetative propagation in the form of roots, rhizomes, tubers and stolon. Cutting these organs usually occurs during the processing of land. Examples are: Kremek (Alternanthera sessilis (L.) DC), Jukut ibun (Drymaria cordata Willd.), Puzzles (Cyperus rotundus L.), The interpreter or Wlingi (Scirpus grossus L.), Papahitan (Axonopus compressus (Swatz) Beauv ), Jajahean or lampuyangan (Panicum repens L.), Kakawatan (Cyndon dactylon L. PRES), Alang-alang (Imperata cylindrical (L.) Beauv), Kolomento (Leersia hexandra Swartz), and tembelekan (Lantana camara L.).
Based on the growth of (habitat), weeds can be divided into 4 groups, namely: weeds on land, semi-aquatic weeds, aquatic weeds, and weeds aerial.
Weeds terrestrial (Terrestrial weed) is a weed that grows on the surface of land or dry land and will die when filled with water. 
For example: Alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica L. Beauv.), Grass bitter (Axonopus compressus), Paspalum conjugatum, Teki (Cyperus rotundus L.), Daughter of shame (Mimosa pudica), Jukut gagajihan (Tridax procumbens), Cacalincingan (Oxalis carniculata ), Kirinyuh (Eupatorium odoratum), Antanan (Centella asiatica), and Antanan leutik (Hydrocotyle asiatica).
Semi-aquatic weed (semi-aquatic weed) Ie weeds that can live on land / water and in dry places, with high adaptability. For example: Lampuyangan (Panicum repens), Kakawatan (Cynodon dactylon), Scirpus spp., Fimbristilis spp.
Aquatic weeds / weed water (aquatic weed) is a life in the water weeds or weeds that part or all of his life in the water. For example: Kayambang (Saluinia molesta), Genjer (Limnocharis plava), Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), Panon munding (Fimbristylis liottoralis), Ki apu / wood apu (Piistia stratiotes), Hidrilla (Hydrilla verticillata), Wewehan (Monochoria vaginalis), Cacabean (Ludwigia octovalis), Ganggeng (Cerotophyllum demersum), Marsilea crenata.
Weeds aerial (aerial weed) is a weed that lives are not in the ground or in water and most are parasites. 
Examples: Grass devil (Striga asiatica) whose life is parasitic on corn and rice, bitter Grass (Axonopus compressus), and so on.

Kamis, 29 September 2011


How nematode morphology? 
• Measuring microscopic (body diameter: 0.01 to 0.05 mm, length: 0.4 to 0.5 mm) 
• elongated cylindrical shape 
• The body encased by the nematode cuticle is transparent, not segmented, beranulasi fine to coarse. 
• body cavity (pseudokoelum) containing a viscous liquid that serves as a hydrostatic skeleton. 
• In the liquid there are three main organs, namely digestive, reproductive, and tools excretion. 
• hole mouth at the anterior end. What is the nature of the internal anatomy of the nematode? 
• The organs of the digestive system of the nematode consists of: the oral cavity with stilet, usofagus, colon, and rectum. 
• The reproductive system in both sexes are similar, which is shaped like a tube. 
• nematode female reproductive system consists of two branches (didelfik) that is located opposite to each other or experiencing kemundurun into one branch (monodelfik). Each branch has four main sections, namely: ovary, oviduct, uterus and vagina. In the oviduct are responsible for maintaining the spermatheca contained sperm. Vagina boils down to the outside through the vulva body whose position is located in the ventral part of the body slightly to the middle or back (posterior). 
• male sex organs are less variable, a single genital tract consists of the testes, seminal physical, fas deferens, and tools in the form of spicules copulation with a buffer plate called the gubernaculum. 

How nematode habitat? 
• Nematodes derived from aquatic animals 
• Nematodes parasitic plants require little water film (for ease of movement) and soil water content is a major ecological factor. 
• Many species of nematodes will die if the soil becomes dry.Conversely too much water will cause the soil contains less oxygen and many of them are dead nematodes, soil structure has a significant influence on the nematodes, especially the soil pores for the movement of nematodes. 
• In general, soil lingklungan Pasiran is the best for the nematodes. How parasitasi ektoparasitik nematodes? 
• Ektoparasitik, nematodes do not enter into the plant tissue, but only stiletnya piercing cells and sucking the contents of plant tissues, the longer owned stilet increasingly in obtaining food resources. 
• Semiendoparasitik, only the body of the nematode anterior (front) that goes into the root tissue and body bagianposterior remain outside the network (in the ground).

How parasitic nematodes endoparasitik?
The whole body into the plant tissue, there are two groups of endoparasitik, among others: 
1. Migratory endoparasitic nematodes: are able to migrate (migratory) remain active and engaged in the network where he ate.
2. Sedentary endoparasitic nematodes: are sedentary (Sedentary) the nematode females will get food from one particular place, then the nematodes will lose mobility and her body then ballooned.

Selasa, 27 September 2011

Plant Disease Symptoms and Signs

Symptoms (Symptom) is indicated by changes in vegetation due tothe presence of disease.
The sign is the identification of disease in addition to the reactionof host plant parasites mmisal tubh fruit, mycelium, slime, sporecolor.

 Local symptoms are symptoms that are limited to certain areassuch as leaf spot, leaf rust, discoloration and others.
 Systemic symptoms are present in the whole body of plants such as wilting, stunted.
 Symptoms are subtle because of the influence of certaincircumstances of disease symptoms will disappear or not show upanymore.

The primary symptoms are symptoms that occur in the affected areas by pathogens
Secondary symptoms are symptoms that occur elsewhere on theplant as a result of damage caused by the primary symptom.
Type of symptoms according to changes in cell
1. Symptoms of damage or necrotic cell death
2. Hypoplastic symptom is due to obstructed or cessation of cell growth (under development)
3. Symptoms are due to hyperplastic growth of cells that are more than usual (over-development)

Signs or macroscopic appearance of pathogens or their organsmore important role than the symptoms
These signs are limited to fungi and bacteria:
1. mycelium
Certain fungi form a mycelium or house spider
2. rust
Layer of flour or brown spots on the surface of tumb, becauseuredospora
3. flour
Powdery white layer consisting of mycelium and spores / konidiumfungi. Eg powdery mildew (powdery mildew) and a layer of fluffywhite (Downy mildew)
4. black fungus
Often called soot diseases (sooty molds) that form a black layer
5. scorched
Usually fire attacked by fungi, eg sugar cane shoots attacked byUstilago scitaminea
6. white pox
White pox on kale or cabbage
7. ter spotting
Layers like drops of tar on the leaf surface
8. fruiting body
Basiodokarp fruiting body or, in fomes lignosus, Ganoderma,Rigidiporus
9. Sklerotium
10. slime bacteria

Causes of Pain in Plants

How do pathogens cause the plants to be sick? 
1. Weaken the host with the way food is absorbed continuously from the cell to its needs. 
2. Stop or disrupt the metabolism of host cells with toxin, enzyme, or a secreted ZPT 
3. Inhibit the transport of food, mineral nutrients and water through the carrier network.
4. Consuming content of host cells after contact.

Disease progression? 
Plant diseases which existed since time immemorial since emerged plants on earth. There is fossil evidence of leaf spot. Some events cause plant diseases fatal to humans who: 
1. Year 1000 in Europe. Famous Holy Fire (Holy Fire) or the fire of St. Anthony 
2. In 1844 in the U.S.. Potato late blight by Phytopthora infestans 
3. Years 1845-1860 in Ireland. Because the potato famine devastated, SHG 1 / 8 pddk died. 
4. Years 1945-1948 in Bangladesh. Famine because of paddy destroyed by Helminthosporium oryzae. 
5. Year 1880 in Indonesia. Coffee leaf rust devastated by Hemelia vastatrik. 
6. 1950 in Tawangmangu. Oranges were destroyed because CVPD 

Why plant diseases are always evolving?
 This is because agricultural technology ever developed for example: 
1. Excessive use of artificial fertilizers 
2. Planting cultivars that produce high but vulnerable to disease
3. Planting a cultivar in a broad area 
4. Importation of new plants from other regions. 

Why plant disease causing harm? 
1. Losses Directly 
Ie losses due to disease reduces the quantity and quality, increase production costs, reducing the ability of farming. 
2. Indirectly loss 
That loss to society because consumers must pay high fees.

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